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Material Infrastructure

Greece has a developed infrastructure that enables the uninterrupted implementation of most investment activities. Within the context of the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens, and investment in the years after, there have been a number of material improvements in Greece's infrastructure.

Road Network

In recent years, the road network has seen substantial improvements. One of the largest infrastructure projects in Europe is the Egnatia Highway, a new East-West highway connecting the port of Igoumenitsa on the Ionian Sea with Alexandroupolis, near the Turkish border.

The PATHE highway system has also been substantially upgraded and connects the southern port of Patras with Athens and Thessaloniki and continues north to the border with North Macedonia. The third major highway system in Greece is the Ionian Highway that connects Patras with Igoumenitsa.

Within the greater Athens area, the new Attica Highway Ring Road has substantially changed road transport in the capital region and is an important logistics route, connecting the airport with logistics centers, sea ports, and rail stations.

These main arteries are of a high standard and many of Greece’s secondary roads have been constructed and improved to provide business and citizens with the best possible connections.


Greece has 45 airports—15 international airports, 26 domestic airports, and 4 municipal airports. Many of these airports, especially on the islands, primarily serve tourists and handle charter flights. In 2001, the Athens International Airport opened and is considered to be one of the best airports in Europe. For a map and list of airports in Greece visit the Hellenic Aviation Authority site at www.hcaa.gr

Many of Greece’s airports are undergoing significant infrastructure and facility upgrades, and there are provisions for the construction of new airports.


With hundreds of islands, Greece has many seaports, 16 of which are international. The port of Piraeus is one of the busiest in Europe and is the main cargo port of the country, followed by the ports of Thessaloniki, Patras, and Igoumenitsa. Greece has more than 140 ports that serve passengers and cargo.

Greece’s port infrastructure is being constantly upgraded and improved to meet the needs of cargo shipping, security concerns, and the country’s visitors, that totaled 27.2 million in 2017. 

In November 2008, China’s Cosco signed an agreement to run a part of the Port of Piraeus in a 35-year, € 4.5 billion deal that is slated to significantly increase the port’s cargo capacity and efficiency. In addition, this agreement, along with the strategic collaboration between Cosco and Hewlett Packard, will position Piraeus as a leading point of entry for goods from Asia destined for the European market. 


The Greek railway system has been placing emphasis on upgrading its infrastructure. The improvement of the rail bed and the laying of new track to improve transport times have been the main priorities.

The rail system is essentially north to south and connects Patra-Athens-Thessaloniki. In recent years travel time between Athens and Thessaloniki has been reduced considerably, from six hours to approximately five. 

The suburban railway connecting the Athens Airport with the capital of Athens, and with Corinth and Kiato, is fast and efficient. The Athens Metro, the first in the city, has been extremely successful and has had a major impact on improving urban transport. The Athens Metro is expanding its lines and network by operating new stations to meet the mobility needs of the labor force in this major business center. In addition, a new metro system is being constructed in Thessaloniki. 

Maritime transport

The shipping lanes serving Greece’s mainland and islands are highly efficient and transport large quantities of passengers and cargo every year. In addition to passenger and cargo ferries, a large number of high-speed catamarans introduced in recent years have reduced travel times considerably.

A new waterway network is also expected to be activated in Greece, as the country set the regulatory framework for the establishment, operation and management of waterway projects, paving the way for the operation of seaplane flights very soon, enriching in that way the tourist product of Greece and providing for the best connection of the mainland with distant destinations - and not only- while also reviving the investment interest.

Power and Energy

Greece relies on lignite for the majority of its electricity production. However, the Greek government has set a goal of withdrawing all lignite plants by 2028, with the majority of units - representing over 80% of current installed capacity - being withdrawn by 2023.

This goal marks the formalization of Greece's transition to a differentiated mixture of electricity production that will not be based on lignite. After all, the process of decarbonization has already started in the early 2010s with the gradual reduction of lignite activity.

In recent years the energy market has been liberalized, providing the private sector with new investment opportunities. In wind and solar, major progress is being made as Greece has committed to a minimum 29% of energy from RES by 2020. 

The capacity of Greece to handle increased petroleum and natural gas transportation is transforming the country into an energy hub in Southeast Europe, while surveys for hydrocarbons are also progressing rapidly.


As with energy, the liberalization of the telecommunications market has resulted in a large number of telecom suppliers in landline, cellular, and Internet services. The market is now highly competitive and services are of a high standard.

Cellular phone penetration in Greece is one of the highest in the EU. Since 2007 Greece has been making good progress in adopting digital technologies, and the creation of a nationwide fiber optic network is being promoted. The penetration of broadband to the population of Greece reached 36.1% during the first half of 2018 (36.1 lines per 100 inhabitants- Souce: OECD).

Water and Sewage Systems

As international concerns about climate change mount, Greece has managed to avoid serious problems to date in its water supply. Concerns are greatest on some islands that have limited fresh water resources and must rely on transported water. Innovative desalination projects using RES technologies are being planned for implementation.

Almost 100% of households have continuous access to water supply and almost 95% are connected to the sewage system. Relatively new sewage treatment plants serving Athens and Thessaloniki have dramatically improved the water quality in the Saronic Gulf in Athens and the Thermaic Gulf in Thessaloniki.